What is Clop Ransomware?

What is ransomware?

Ransomware is a type of malicious software (malware) that encrypts files or locks computer systems, holding them hostage until a ransom is paid to the attacker. It is designed to extort money from individuals, organizations, or businesses by denying access to their own data or systems.

When a computer or network is infected with ransomware, the malware encrypts the files, making them inaccessible to the user. The attacker then demands a ransom, usually in the form of cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin, in exchange for providing the decryption key or unlocking the system.

Ransomware typically spreads through phishing emails, malicious attachments, or by exploiting vulnerabilities in software or operating systems. Once the malware gains access to a system, it begins encrypting files, and the victim is presented with a ransom note, which includes instructions on how to pay the ransom and regain access to their data.

Paying the ransom does not guarantee that the attacker will provide the decryption key or unlock the system, and it may even encourage further attacks. Additionally, complying with the demands of ransomware attacks can support criminal activities and contribute to the perpetuation of such threats.

Clop ransomware

Clop ransomware is a specific type of ransomware that emerged in early 2019. It belongs to the CryptoMix ransomware family and has gained notoriety due to its destructive capabilities and successful attacks against individuals and organizations.

Clop ransomware operates by encrypting files on the infected system, rendering them inaccessible to the victim. It primarily targets Windows-based systems and spreads through various methods such as phishing emails, malicious attachments, exploit kits, or through compromised websites.

Once the files are encrypted, Clop ransomware leaves a ransom note, usually in the form of a text or HTML file, which contains instructions on how to pay the ransom. The note typically demands a significant amount of cryptocurrency, such as Bitcoin, in exchange for the decryption key needed to unlock the encrypted files.

What sets Clop ransomware apart is its additional technique of exfiltrating sensitive data from the compromised system before encryption. The attackers threaten to publish or sell the stolen data if the ransom is not paid. This double extortion tactic adds another layer of pressure and potential harm to the victims.

Clop ransomware has targeted a wide range of organizations, including healthcare institutions, financial services, and government entities. It is constantly evolving, with new variants and techniques being developed to evade detection and increase its effectiveness.

History of Clop ransomware

Clop ransomware made its debut in early 2019, quickly establishing a reputation for its destructive capabilities and successful attacks targeting organizations globally. Here is a brief overview of the history of Clop ransomware:

1. Early Emergence: Clop ransomware, which is believed to be a successor of the CryptoMix ransomware family active since 2016, was initially identified in February 2019.

2. Evolution of Techniques: Clop ransomware utilizes a variety of sophisticated techniques to infect systems and maximize its destructive potential. Common distribution methods include phishing emails, exploit kits, and exploiting vulnerabilities in software and operating systems.

3. Double Extortion Tactics: One of the distinguishing characteristics of Clop ransomware is its implementation of double extortion tactics. In addition to encrypting files, it exfiltrates sensitive data from compromised systems before encrypting it. The attackers then threaten to leak or sell the stolen data if the ransom is not paid, adding another layer of pressure on the victims.

4. High-Profile Targets: Clop ransomware has specifically targeted a diverse range of prominent organizations, including healthcare institutions, financial services, universities, government entities, and large corporations. Notable victims of this ransomware strain include the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) and numerous other organizations worldwide.

5. Financial Impact: The ransom demands associated with Clop attacks have been known to be substantial, ranging from tens of thousands to millions of dollars. The attackers typically request payment in cryptocurrency, such as Bitcoin, to make it harder to trace the transactions.

6. Collaboration with Other Malware: Clop ransomware has been observed to collaborate with other malware strains, such as Emotet and TrickBot, which serve as initial infection vectors. These malware campaigns work in conjunction to compromise systems and facilitate the deployment of Clop ransomware.

7. Continuous Evolution: Like other ransomware strains, Clop ransomware has continued to evolve over time. New variants and versions with improved encryption techniques and evasion mechanisms are regularly released by the attackers to stay ahead of security measures.

What to do if you think you have Clop ransomware?

If you suspect that your system has been infected with Clop ransomware or any other form of ransomware, it is of utmost importance to act swiftly in order to mitigate potential damage and safeguard your data. Here are the recommended steps to follow:

 1. Isolate the Infected System: Disconnect the infected system from the network, including Wi-Fi and Ethernet connections. This helps prevent the ransomware from spreading to other devices or encrypting additional files.

2. Preserve Evidence: If you are in a business environment or have access to IT support, it is important to inform them promptly. They can provide guidance on the next steps to take, such as isolating the affected system from the network and initiating incident response procedures. Preserving evidence of the attack is also essential for forensic analysis and potential involvement of law enforcement agencies.

3. Report the Incident: Contact your local law enforcement agency or report the incident to the appropriate cybercrime reporting organization in your country. Provide them with all the relevant details about the ransomware infection.

4. Do Not Pay the Ransom: It is generally recommended not to pay the ransom in the case of a ransomware attack. There are several reasons for this advice. Firstly, there is no guarantee that paying the ransom will result in the successful recovery of your files. Attackers may not provide the decryption key or may provide a faulty one, leaving your data still inaccessible. Secondly, paying the ransom encourages and funds further criminal activities, as it validates the effectiveness of ransomware attacks as a profitable endeavor. By refusing to pay, you disrupt the financial incentive for attackers and contribute to the overall effort to combat ransomware. Lastly, paying the ransom can have legal implications, as it involves engaging with criminals. It is important to report the incident to the appropriate authorities and work with cybersecurity professionals to explore alternative options for data recovery.

5. Consult with Cybersecurity Experts: Reach out to a reputable cybersecurity company or professional to assess the situation and assist with the removal of the ransomware. They can provide guidance on the best course of action based on the specific circumstances.

6. Remove the Ransomware: Using up-to-date antivirus or anti-malware software, perform a thorough scan of your system to detect and remove the ransomware. Follow the instructions provided by the security software to clean up the infected files and restore system functionality.

7. Restore from Backups: If you have securely backed up your important files and data, restore them from a backup that was created before the ransomware infection occurred. Ensure that your backups are unaffected and stored separately from your main system to prevent reinfection.

8. Strengthen Security Measures: After the ransomware incident is resolved, strengthen your security measures to prevent future infections. Keep your operating system, software, and antivirus programs up to date, regularly backup your data, and educate yourself and your employees about safe online practices, including avoiding suspicious email attachments and links.

Remember, prevention is key when it comes to ransomware attacks. Implementing proactive security measures and maintaining regular backups can significantly reduce the impact of such threats.

How to protect yourself and avoid infection by Clop ransomware?

Protecting yourself and preventing infection by Clop ransomware or any other ransomware involves implementing several security measures. Here are some essential steps to help you avoid ransomware infections:

1. Keep Software Updated: Ensure that your operating system, antivirus software, web browsers, and other applications are up to date. Regularly apply security patches and updates to fix vulnerabilities that could be exploited by ransomware.

2. Exercise Caution with Email Attachments and Links: Be cautious when opening email attachments or clicking on links, especially if they are unexpected or from unknown senders. Verify the authenticity of the emails and their attachments before opening them, and be wary of suspicious or unsolicited messages.

3. Install Reliable Antivirus and Anti-Malware Software: Use reputable security software and keep it up to date. Enable real-time scanning and automatic updates to detect and block ransomware threats.

4. Enable Firewall Protection: Having an active and properly configured firewall is essential for improving the security of your system. A firewall acts as a protective barrier between your computer and the external network, overseeing and managing incoming and outgoing network traffic. By doing so, it plays a crucial role in preventing unauthorized access to your system and blocking potentially harmful activities.

5. Implement Email Filtering: Deploy email filtering solutions that can identify and block malicious attachments, phishing attempts, and suspicious emails before they reach your inbox.

6. Disable Macros: Configure your office productivity software (e.g., Microsoft Office) to disable macros by default. Ransomware often spreads through malicious macros embedded in documents.

7. Practice Safe Web Browsing: Be cautious when visiting websites, especially those of dubious or untrusted sources. Avoid clicking on pop-up ads, downloading files from unknown sources, or entering personal information on unsecured websites.

8. Backup Your Data Regularly: Maintain regular backups of your important files and data on separate storage devices or in the cloud. Ensure that backups are not directly accessible from your main system to prevent them from being compromised during a ransomware attack.

9. Implement Least Privilege Principle: Limit user privileges and access rights to only what is necessary for each individual. This reduces the potential impact of ransomware by minimizing the access attackers have to critical systems and files.

10. Educate Yourself and Staff: Provide cybersecurity awareness training to yourself and your employees. Teach them about the risks associated with ransomware, phishing attacks, and safe online practices, such as not clicking on suspicious links or downloading unverified attachments.

By implementing these preventive measures and staying vigilant, you can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to Clop ransomware or any other ransomware strain. Regularly review and update your security practices to stay ahead of evolving threats.


Ransomware, including the notorious Clop ransomware, poses a significant threat to individuals, organizations, and businesses. It is a type of malware that encrypts files or locks computer systems, holding them hostage until a ransom is paid to the attacker. Clop ransomware, specifically, gained prominence for its destructive capabilities and double extortion tactics. 

If you suspect a Clop ransomware infection, it is crucial to act swiftly and take the following steps: 

1. Isolate the infected system to prevent further spread.

2. Report the incident to law enforcement and seek professional assistance.

3. Refrain from paying the ransom, as it does not guarantee recovery and supports criminal activities.

4. Consult cybersecurity experts to remove the ransomware and restore system functionality.

5. Restore your files from secure backups created before the infection occurred.

6. Strengthen your security measures by keeping software updated, exercising caution with email attachments and links, using reliable antivirus software, enabling firewall protection, implementing email filtering, disabling macros, practicing safe web browsing, regular data backups, and educating yourself and staff on cybersecurity best practices. 

By implementing these preventive measures, you can greatly minimize the likelihood of falling victim to Clop ransomware or any other ransomware. It’s important to maintain a robust cybersecurity posture and stay vigilant about emerging threats.

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